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85th percentile vehicle speed


Vehicle travel speed that is not exceeded by 85% of vehicles.



Average Annual Daily Traffic volume

BSIS Score

Bitumen Surfacing Inspection System.  A rating method developed by VicRoads for five condition criteria for flush seals and asphalt wearing courses.  Assessments are made for amount and severity of cracking, loss of aggregate, amount of maintenance patching, binder level and bitumen condition (hardening).  BSIS produces a score to indicate reseal priority:

  0 – 5     Very low

  5 – 10   Low

10 – 15   Medium

15 – 20   High

20 – 25   Very High

25 – 30   Urgent


California Bearing Ratio.  A test to measure strength and bearing capacity of subgrade material (Ref AS 1289). The CBR is the ratio expressed as a percentage of the penetration resistance of a soil to the penetration resistance of a standard crushed rock.


Corporate overheads

Indirect costs of work incurred as corporate services including administrative processing, payroll, human resources, information technology, financial services, general management and governance.


Current replacement cost

The current cost of replacing the original service potential of an existing asset, with a similar modern equivalent asset, ie the total cost of replacing an existing asset with an as NEW or similar asset expressed in current dollar values.


Direct project costs

Direct costs incurrent in work including direct labour, labour on-costs, plant hire, contract payments, materials, and direct supervision. Excludes engineering overheads and corporate/ management overheads.


Economic life

The estimated or expected time between placing the asset into service and removing it from service, in other words the estimated period of time over which the future economic benefits embodied in a depreciable asset are expected to be consumed by the council. It is the same as the useful life.


Engineering overheads

Indirect costs for engineering work incurred in design and general supervision of projects and management of the engineering services function.



For unsealed roads, the total width of unsealed pavement and shoulders.


Grading frequency

Frequency that maintenance grading is undertaken on an unsealed road.


Gravel material quality for resheet material

Quality analysis of gravel road materials by observed performance on the road by Lea, Paige & Green, 1999, RTR.  The performance of the gravel material is assessed by the gravel material’s shrinkage product and grading co-coefficient where the shrinkage product (SP) = linear shrinkage x % passing 0.425 mm sieve and the grading co-efficient (Gc) = (% passing 26.5 mm sieve - % passing 2 mm sieve) x (% passing 4.75 mm sieve) / 100.  The results are plotted on a graph to indicate the gravel material quality.  The method is detailed in Shepherd, D.  To determine the quality of your gravel material from material grading analysis click here. (Please enable Macros for the spread sheet to work correctly)

Periodic pavement maintenance



Renewal (replacement) of gravel pavement of unsealed roads to replace gravel lost from wind and rain erosion, traffic, etc.  Resheets are usually undertaken to a compacted depth of 50 – 200 mm on a 3 – 15 years cycle.



Renewal of pavement wearing surface by spray seal, asphalt or associated materials.


Routine maintenance activities

Day to day operational activities to keep the asset operating and which form part of the annual operating budget, including preventative maintenance.  This includes:

Routine pavement maintenance

·          Pothole patching

·          Minor regulation

·          Crack sealing

·          Minor surface treatment

·          Pavement sweeping

·          Edge repairs

·          Digouts/patching (<2m2 isolated to pavement failures)

·          Unsealed road grading


Shoulders maintenance

·          Unsealed shoulder grading

·          Minor sealed shoulder repairs

·          Drainage

·          Cleaning surface drains (inc. verge drains & back drains)

·          Cleaning sub-surface drains

·          Culvert & pit cleaning and repairs



·          Reinstate road openings

·          Emergency works (inc cleanups & traffic control)

·          Emergency patching (eg due to burst water mains)

Source: VicRoads Maintenance Work Types



Non built-up areas where the frontage is generally other than residential, commercial or industrial (Source: Vic Grants Commission).

Structural overlay

Application of asphalt to pavement that provides additional structural strength to the pavement.  Generally greater than 40mm in thickness.


Spray seal

Surface or wearing course of sprayed bituminous binder and layer(s) of aggregate. Also known as flush seal and chip seal.


Surface regulation

Improvement to rideability of a pavement by filling of depressions with asphalt or bituminous ‘cold mix’. Usually undertaken prior to resurfacing.


Surface preparation work

Work to prepare a pavement wearing surface for reseal including pothole patching, surface regulation, minor and major patching.



Built-up areas where the predominant frontage of streets and roads is residential, commercial or industrial and where there is generally street lighting and/or a 60 km/h (or less) speed limit (Source: Vic Grants Commission).



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